The transition from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries saw massive technological changes (electricity, the automobile, powered flight) combined with political changes (the collapse of Qing China, the unifications of Italy and Germany) and social changes (urbanization, massive migration).
This led, unsurprisingly, to cultural shifts that reflected the unsettled world. Some of these were confined to the upper reaches of high culture. Others were visible within the popular culture. Below are some examples of these sweeping cultural changes.