Egypt and the Nile River Valley

Ancient Egyptian civilization, arising in the Nile River valley, benefited from the steady, regular Nile floods which provided a consistent, predictable food source. Egyptian society went through periods of unity and disunity (known as “Kingdoms” to historians) over its long history.

Ancient Egypt map-en

By Jeff Dahl [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Below are two examples of written sources from Old and New Kingdom Egypt.

The Precepts of Ptah-Hotep
The Victory of Ramses II Over the Khita