Mesopotamia

The region which was home to the first civilizations and states of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley systems became known by its Greek name, Mesopotamia or “land between the rivers.”

The Tigris-Euphrates river system. Map created by Karl Musser and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.

The Tigris-Euphrates river system. Map created by Karl Musser and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.

This region was subject to occasional floods which enriched the soil making agriculture possible. The region also had a great deal of mineral wealth:

Metal production in Ancient Middle East

Metal production in Ancient Middle East; By Regs_productoras_de_metales_en_la_Edad_Antigua_en_Oriente_Medio.svg: Crates derivative work: Phirosiberia [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

A number of societies and states dominated different parts of this region beginning around 8000 to 10000 BCE and extending into the period of larger empires such as the Neo . Some examples of the historical evidence from this area and period are below.

Sumerian Proverbs
A Tribute to King Sargon of Akkad
Advice from an Akkadian Father to Son
Excerpts from the Code of Hammurapi (AKA Hammurabi)
Excerpts from the law code of the Hittites