The Islamic caliphate originally overseen by Muhammad and his successors would eventually fragment. One of the most dominant successor states was the Abbasid Caliphate. Continue reading
Much of European medic an ideas in the middle ages can be traced to Islamic scholars such as Ibn Sina.
This description is from around 1000 CE by a writer named Yakut who lived in the city.
Islamic forces, by the 11th century CE, occupied the Levant, birthplace of Christianity.