In 1828, responding to the “Tariff of Abominations,” South Carolinian John Calhoun composed an essay entitled “Exposition and Protest” in which he argued that states had the right to “nullify” or cancel out laws of the Federal or–in Calhoun’s term “general”–government.
The Rise of Democracy
From the late 1820s to the 1840s, changes to voting regulations throughout the United States increased the number of men able to vote. Almost exclusively, the right to vote was restricted to white males with a relatively small number African-American males being able to vote in states of the northeastern US). Property requirements, however, had largely gone by the wayside during this time and by 1840, more than 90% of white men were eligible to vote.
Part of President James Monroe’s State of the Union message to Congress on December 2, 1823, the “Monroe Doctrine” was the brainchild of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. It was a response to the continued European intervention and interference in the affairs of newly independent nations in Central and South America. The Monroe Doctrine, with its stated desire of the United States to stay out of the affairs of Europe, and for Europe to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere, would be one of the driving forces of US foreign policy until the early 20th century.
The Erie Canal, new roads, and increased governmental organization allowed and encouraged migration westward beginning in the first decades of the 1800s.