The transition from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries saw massive technological changes (electricity, the automobile, powered flight) combined with political changes (the collapse of Qing China, the unifications of Italy and Germany) and social changes (urbanization, massive migration).
This led, unsurprisingly, to cultural shifts that reflected the unsettled world. Some of these were confined to the upper reaches of high culture. Others were visible within the popular culture. Below are some examples of these sweeping cultural changes.
Modernist Thought: The Futurist Manifesto
The Futurist Manifesto- Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1909)
Futurism was an artistic and literary movement which emerged in the early twentieth century in Italy, spreading to other nations in Europe within a few years. Like many artistic and cultural trends in the Fin de siècle era, it rejected the Enlightenment era past and glorified the new. Marinetti (1876-1944) was an Italian poet who claimed to undergo a conversion of sorts to more modern ideas after a car accident caused him to re-evaluate art.