Tag Archives: Italy

Mazzini and Italy

After 1815 and the end of the Napoleonic Wars, a number of political ideologies swept through Europe including liberalism (the idea that nations should be governed by a constitutional government with the consent of the people) and nationalism (an idea which urged for political independence for distinct ethnic and cultural groups). One thinker who combined these two philosophies was the Italian Joseph Mazzini (1805-1872).
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Galileo’s Letter to Christina of Tuscany

In this l615 letter to Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany, Galileo defends the theory of heliocentrism–that the Earth revolves around the sun. While popular sentiment tends to hold that the Church condemned Galileo from the start, his ideas were the center of a crucial and long debate which ended with more conservative forces in the church winning. Galileo would be condemned as a heretic.
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Modernist Thought: The Futurist Manifesto

The Futurist Manifesto- Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1909)

Futurism was an artistic and literary movement which emerged in the early twentieth century in Italy, spreading to other nations in Europe within a few years.  Like many artistic and cultural trends in the Fin de siècle era, it rejected the Enlightenment era past and glorified the new. Marinetti (1876-1944) was an Italian poet who claimed to undergo a conversion of sorts to more modern ideas after a car accident caused him to re-evaluate art.
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