In 1517, Martin Luther–a German Monk–posted a list of 95 points of concern about the Roman Catholic church. This act–and the political tensions which existed in Europe at the time–split Europe between Catholic and “Protestant” regions.
After the decline of Rome in the West, various “barbarian” kingdoms emerged. One of these, the kingdom of the Franks, became dominant in what is now France and Germany. Its first dynasty, that of the Merovingian and, later, the stronger Carolingian Dynasty.
Ancient Egyptian civilization, arising in the Nile River valley, benefited from the steady, regular Nile floods which provided a consistent, predictable food source. Egyptian society went through periods of unity and disunity (known as “Kingdoms” to historians) over its long history.
The region which was home to the first civilizations and states of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley systems became known by its Greek name, Mesopotamia or “land between the rivers.”
The first inhabitants of North America arrived via the Beringia land bridge approximately 20,000 years ago, although archaeological work on the earliest Americans is ongoing. Widespread occupation of the Americas dates to around 13,000 to 16,000 years ago.
In North America, these peoples spread out, developing distinct but sometimes related languages and cultures (as shown in the map below). Ways of life varied, from hunting and gathering societies to organizations of urban hubs and hinterlands (such as the Mississippian civilization centered on the city of Cahokia).
This image (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Langs_N.Amer.png) is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.